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Identification of Y-linked sequences in (A) We applied KQ method in genome sequences of and counted length and AYK value for each scaffold. For the vast majority of Autosome (green point) and X-derived (blue point) scaffolds, their AYK values are less than 10 (usually close to 0); Y-derived scaffolds (red point) were with AYK value more than 10. Unmapped scaffolds (grey point) have dispersive AYK values, we speculated that scaffolds with AYK value more than 10 are possible Y-linked. (B) Compared with the CQ and YGS methods, KQ method could identify more precise Y-derived scaffolds in . Based on the analysis of scaffold length and number, the results of three methods were similar when the length of scaffold is more than 5 kb, whereas KQ method (red pillar) could identify more precisely Y-linked scaffolds when the length of scaffold is less than 5 kb.

Figure 2
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Identification of Y-linked sequences in (A) We applied KQ method in genome sequences of and counted length and AYK value for each scaffold. For the vast majority of Autosome (green point) and X-derived (blue point) scaffolds, their AYK values are less than 10 (usually close to 0); Y-derived scaffolds (red point) were with AYK value more than 10. Unmapped scaffolds (grey point) have dispersive AYK values, we speculated that scaffolds with AYK value more than 10 are possible Y-linked. (B) Compared with the CQ and YGS methods, KQ method could identify more precise Y-derived scaffolds in . Based on the analysis of scaffold length and number, the results of three methods were similar when the length of scaffold is more than 5 kb, whereas KQ method (red pillar) could identify more precisely Y-linked scaffolds when the length of scaffold is less than 5 kb.

We obtained 93,942 high-frequency 15-mers (frequency >=15 in female reads), where the KQ values were zero in B. mori . These 15-mers (W-15-mers) could not be aligned onto a male genomic assembly, which strengthened the likelihood of W-specificity. As reads containing W-15-mers could be W-derived, we aligned all the W-15-mers to female genome sequencing reads and screened the reads containing W-15-mers. We obtained about 1.1 million HiSeq paired-end reads (101 bp, ∼216 Mbp) and 0.6 million MiSeq paired-end reads (250 bp, ∼300 Mbp) as W-derived reads, which were assembled into 6718 W-specific contigs using the MaSuRCA assembler. 21 We set a threshold AWK (Amount of W-15-mers per Kb sequence) value = 10 and considered contigs with an AWK value greater than 10 as valid W-specific contigs ( Manchester Great Sale For Sale Cheap Sale Very Cheap Ties On Sale Denim Blue Melange Wool 2017 one size Churchs U2AHe9zcC
). Eligible contigs of 1281 were selected with a total length of around 1.9 Mb, which covered almost 1/10 of the W chromosome. To confirm these contigs were indeed W-derived, we randomly chose 10 of them (named W_Seq1 to W_Seq10) for a separate PCR test with female and male genomic DNA. The primers were designed to have W-15-mers at the 3’ end and used a relatively high annealing temperature to reduce the likelihood of primer mismatch. 22–24 PCR bands appeared only in females for all 10 primer pairs, ( Fig.3A ), indicating that all of them were W-specific.

Methionine metabolism affords a remarkable example of the role of vitamins in cell chemistry. MS utilizes methylcobalamin as a prosthetic group, 1 of only 2 mammalian enzymes that are known to require Vitamin B-12. The methyl group utilized by MS is provided from the folic acid 1-carbon pool. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which reduces 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF, contains FAD as a prosthetic group. Both of the enzymes in the transsulfuration pathway (CBS and CGL) contain pyridoxal phosphate. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that deficiencies of each of these vitamins (Vitamin B-12, folic acid, riboflavin, and pyridoxine) are associated with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The oxidative decarboxylation of the α-ketobutyrate produced by CGL is brought about by pyruvate dehydrogenase so that niacin (NAD), thiamine (thiamine pyrophosphate), and pantothenic acid (coenzyme A) may also be regarded as being required for methionine metabolism.

Not only are vitamins required for methionine metabolism, but methionine metabolism plays a crucial role in the cellular assimilation of folate. MS has 2 principal functions. In addition to its role in methionine conservation, MS converts 5-methyl-THF to THF, thereby making it available to support DNA synthesis and other functions. Because 5-methyl-THF is the dominant circulating form that is taken into cells, MS is essential for cellular folate assimilation. Impaired MS activity (e.g., brought about by cobalamin deficiency) results in the accumulation of the folate coenzymes as 5-methyl-THF, the so-called methyl trap ( 14 ). This hypothesis explains the fact that Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes a functional cellular folate deficiency.

The combined transmethylation and transsulfuration pathways are responsible for the catabolism of the great bulk of methionine. However, there is also evidence for the occurrence of a SAM-independent catabolic pathway that begins with a transamination reaction ( 15 ). This is a very minor pathway under normal circumstances, but it becomes more significant at very high methionine concentrations. Because it produces powerful toxins such as methane thiol, it has been considered to be responsible for methionine toxicity. The identity of the initiating transaminase is uncertain; the glutamine transaminase can act on methionine, but it is thought to be unlikely to do so under physiological conditions ( 15 ). In view of the likelihood that this pathway plays a role in methionine toxicity, more work is warranted on its components, tissue distribution, and physiological function.

The major means by which methionine metabolism is regulated are 1 ) allosteric regulation by SAM and 2 ) regulation of the expression of key enzymes. In the liver, SAM exerts powerful effects at a variety of loci. The liver-specific MAT has a high K m for methionine and, therefore, is well fitted to remove excess dietary methionine. It exhibits the unusual property of feedback activation; it is activated by its product, SAM ( 16 ). This property has been incorporated into a computer model of hepatic methionine metabolism, and it is clear that it renders methionine disposal exquisitely sensitive to the methionine concentration ( 17 ). SAM is also an allosteric activator of CBS and an allosteric inhibitor of MTHFR ( 18 ). Therefore, elevated SAM promotes transsulfuration (methionine oxidation) and inhibits remethylation (methionine conservation). Many of the enzymes involved in methionine catabolism (MAT 1, GNMT, CBS) are increased in activity on ingestion of a high-protein diet ( 18 ).

Table 27.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Gastroenteritis, Infectious, and Toxin-Induced Diarrhea

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; DFA, direct fluorescent immunoassay; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; EHEC, enterohemorrhagic ; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase; NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test; PVA, polyvinyl alcohol; RT, room temperature; SAF, sodium acetate formalin transport.

A routine stool culture in most laboratories is designed to detect spp, spp, spp, and O157 or Shiga toxin–producing .

If the specimen cannot be transported to the laboratory within 2 hours, then it should be placed in vial containing Cary-Blair transport medium and transported to the laboratory within 24 hours.

It is recommended that laboratories routinely process stool specimens for the presence of Shiga toxin–producing strains of including O157:H7. However, in some settings, this testing may be done only on specific request.

Available as part of some multiplex panels.

Specialized cultures are required to detect these organisms in stool specimens. In many cases, such cultures are performed only in public health laboratories and only in the setting of an outbreak. The laboratory should be notified whenever there is a suspicion of infection due to one of these pathogens.

, , and cause diarrheal syndromes that are toxin mediated. An etiologic diagnosis is made by demonstration of toxin in stool. Toxin assays are either performed in public health laboratories or referred to laboratories specializing in such assays.

Testing for toxin is either performed in public health laboratories or referred to laboratories specializing in such testing. The toxin is lethal and special precautions are required for handling. Note that it is considered a bioterrorism agent and rapid sentinel laboratory reporting schemes must be followed. Immediate notification of a suspected case to the state health department is mandated. For this purpose, 24-hour hotlines are available.

Implicated food materials may also be examined for toxin, but most hospital laboratories are not equipped for food analysis.

The role of as a pathogen remains controversial. In the absence of other pathogens, it may be important where symptoms persist. Reporting semi-quantitative results (rare, few, many) can help determine significance and is a College of American Pathologists accreditation requirement for participating laboratories.

Detection of in immunocompromised patients may require the use of Baermann technique or agar plate culture.

and testing is often offered and performed together as the primary parasitology examination. Further studies should follow if a travel history or clinical symptoms suggest parasitic disease.

These stains may not be routinely available.

Also available as part of some multiplex panels.

Asymptomatic shedding is common.

Norovirus antigen assays have limited sensitivity and specificity and are not recommended for clinical use.

Enteric adenoviruses may not be recovered in routine viral culture.

A negative viral load test does not necessarily rule out CMV disease. Gastrointestinal disease due to CMV may be present in patients with negative viral load.

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Table 27.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Gastroenteritis, Infectious, and Toxin-Induced Diarrhea

Abbreviations: CMV, cytomegalovirus; DFA, direct fluorescent immunoassay; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; EHEC, enterohemorrhagic ; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase; NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test; PVA, polyvinyl alcohol; RT, room temperature; SAF, sodium acetate formalin transport.

A routine stool culture in most laboratories is designed to detect spp, spp, spp, and O157 or Shiga toxin–producing .

If the specimen cannot be transported to the laboratory within 2 hours, then it should be placed in vial containing Cary-Blair transport medium and transported to the laboratory within 24 hours.

It is recommended that laboratories routinely process stool specimens for the presence of Shiga toxin–producing strains of including O157:H7. However, in some settings, this testing may be done only on specific request.

Available as part of some multiplex panels.

Specialized cultures are required to detect these organisms in stool specimens. In many cases, such cultures are performed only in public health laboratories and only in the setting of an outbreak. The laboratory should be notified whenever there is a suspicion of infection due to one of these pathogens.

, , and cause diarrheal syndromes that are toxin mediated. An etiologic diagnosis is made by demonstration of toxin in stool. Toxin assays are either performed in public health laboratories or referred to laboratories specializing in such assays.

Testing for toxin is either performed in public health laboratories or referred to laboratories specializing in such testing. The toxin is lethal and special precautions are required for handling. Note that it is considered a bioterrorism agent and rapid sentinel laboratory reporting schemes must be followed. Immediate notification of a suspected case to the state health department is mandated. For this purpose, 24-hour hotlines are available.

Implicated food materials may also be examined for toxin, but most hospital laboratories are not equipped for food analysis.

The role of as a pathogen remains controversial. In the absence of other pathogens, it may be important where symptoms persist. Reporting semi-quantitative results (rare, few, many) can help determine significance and is a College of American Pathologists accreditation requirement for participating laboratories.

Detection of in immunocompromised patients may require the use of Baermann technique or agar plate culture.

and testing is often offered and performed together as the primary parasitology examination. Further studies should follow if a travel history or clinical symptoms suggest parasitic disease.

These stains may not be routinely available.

Also available as part of some multiplex panels.

Asymptomatic shedding is common.

Norovirus antigen assays have limited sensitivity and specificity and are not recommended for clinical use.

Enteric adenoviruses may not be recovered in routine viral culture.

A negative viral load test does not necessarily rule out CMV disease. Gastrointestinal disease due to CMV may be present in patients with negative viral load.

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Stool culture is indicated for detection of invasive bacterial enteric pathogens. When culture methods are employed, most laboratories routinely detect Salmonella , Shigella , and Campylobacter and, more recently, Shiga toxin–producing E. coli in all stools submitted for culture. Salmonella spp can take 24–72 hours to recover and identify to genus alone with the specific serotyping usually performed at the public health laboratory level. It is recommended that tests for the detection of Shiga toxin, or tests to specifically detect Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 or other Shiga toxin–producing serotypes, be included as part of the routine test. However, in some settings, these tests may require a specific request. Tests that detect only E. coli O157:H7 will not detect the increasing number of non-O157 isolates being reported and may not detect all E. coli O157:H7 [ 143 ]. Screening algorithms that limit testing to bloody stools may also miss both O157 and non-O157 isolates. Screening of stool for toxin-producing E. coli is recommended for all pediatric patients.

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09 July, 2012

I remember sitting in my ninth-grade chemistry class when my teacher mentioned that the day’s lesson would include a discussion about accuracy and precision, and how relate to making experimental measurements. I’ve always been more of a liberal-arts-minded individual, and I initially thought, In fact, I even remembered using the words interchangeably in my writing for English class!

However, as I continued through more advanced science and math courses in college, and eventually joined Minitab Inc., I became tuned in to the important differences between accuracy and precision—and especially how they relate to quality improvement projects!

Assessing Variation in Your Measurement Systems

I’ve learned that if you’re starting a quality improvement project that involves collecting data to control quality or to monitor changes in your company’s processes, it’s essential that your systems for collecting measurements aren’t faulty.

After all, if you can’t trust your measurement system, then you can’t trust the data that it produces.

So what types of measurement system errors may be taking place? Here’s where accuracy and precision come into play. refers to how close measurements are to the "true" value, while refers to how close measurements are to each other. In other words, accuracy describes the difference between the measurement and the part’s actual value, while precision describes the variation you see when you measure the same part repeatedly with the same device.

Precision can be broken down further into two components:

Repeatability : The variation observed when the same operator measures the same part repeatedly with the same device.

Reproducibility : The variation observed when different operators measure the same part using the same device.

It’s important to note that measurement systems can suffer from both accuracy precision problems! A dart board can help us visualize the difference between the two concepts:

Accurate and Precise Precise...but not Accurate

Accurate, but not Precise Neither Accurate nor Precise

When Accuracy and Precision Get “Snacky”

Maybe this example can help to further show the differences. Let’s talk potato chips! Suppose you’re a snack foods manufacturer producing 12 oz. bags of potato chips. You test the weight of the bags using a scale that measures the bags precisely (in other words, there is little variation in the measurements), but not accurately – measuring 13.2 oz., 13.33 oz., and 13.13 oz. for three samples.

Or maybe the scale is accurate, measuring the three samples at 12.02 oz., 11.74 oz., and 12.43 oz., but not precise. In this case, the measurements have a larger variance, but the average of the measurements is very close to the target value of 12 oz.

Or maybe your measurements are all over the place, with samples measuring at 11.64 oz., 12.35 oz., and 13.04 oz., in which case your scale may be neither accurate nor precise.

But how can you detect these problems in your measurement system?

Evaluating Accuracy Precision

Accuracy and precision can be easily evaluated through many measurement systems analysis tools in Order Leather Passport Case FRENCH PORCELAIN PEACOCK by VIDA VIDA Sale Wholesale Price Best Seller Cheap Get To Buy yPHMF6h3
, including Gage Linearity and Bias Studies and Gage RR Studies, which can help you reveal if a scale needs to be recalibrated or if your newly hired operators are measuring ingredients consistently.

What should you do if you detect accuracy and/or precision errors? Focus on improving your measurement system before relying on your data and moving forward with your improvement project. Allow the results of your Gage RR Study to help you decide if recalibrating a scale or conducting more training for new hires might be just what you need to get your measurement systems back on track.

Check out these resources out to learn more about completing a Gage Study in Minitab:

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Who We Are

Minitab is the leading provider of software and services for quality improvement and statistics education. More than 90% of Fortune 100 companies use Minitab Statistical Software, our flagship product, and more students worldwide have used Minitab to learn statistics than any other package.

Minitab Inc. is a privately owned company headquartered in State College, Pennsylvania, with subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, France, and Australia. Our global network of representatives serves more than 40 countries around the world.

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